Cost Of Maize Production Per Hectare

bales lower than the. However, by 2003, seven E. "To produce the 7,5t/ha average yield of no-till maize required 2,8l diesel/t, and 12 minutes labour per ton. "The crop of Ardent maize we harvested on 26th September yielded 37. 72 Metric tonnes per hectare last season. If the maize price goes up with a mere R250 per tonne (R2 500/ton), profitability will increase by 14. Agricultural Production Survey for the Northern Regions of Ghana: 2013-2014 Results Introduction The Agricultural Production Survey is a complement to the Population-Based Survey conducted to develop baseline indicators for USAID Ghana Mission’ Economic Growth Office. It is often argued that despite the gains in efficiency elsewhere in the system, the fact that organic production produces less is still a barrier in a world where we are told we need to produce more food. Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. A listing of inputs and prices helps estimate how much operating capital is needed for production. The Summer Grain Scheme was established in 1979 in terms of s 14(1)(a) of the Act (see Michau v Maize Board 2003 (6) SA 459 (SCA) para 3). 74%, compared with an annual average growth rate of 0. Production is dependent on an even distribution of rain throughout the growing season. Maize also has fewer pest and disease problems," said a report of the UN Food and Agriculture. This critical yield would not likely be achieved and. In recent years, total maize output has not kept pace with the growing population and demand, largely due to falling land productivity: average national maize yields have fallen from over 2 tons per hectare in the early 1980’s to about 1. Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. Maize grows in a wider range of soil type than rice, almost every part of Nigeria can grow maize on their soil. Each ton of grain produced removes 15,0 to 18,0 kg of nitrogen, 2,5 to 3,0 kg of phosphorus and 3,0 to 4,0 kg of potassium from the soil. 29 metric tonnes per hectare from 1. 5MT/3 batches of maize per day at a cost to the farmer of ~$9. 5 metric tonnes per hectare annually. 99 tons, respectively, while Free State and North West which are in the semi-arid region had the lowest yield per hectare 3. 00tha-1 (DACNET, 2012). High cost effectiveness, versatility and convenience – these are the key advantages of the new DUPLEX SEED drilling process, available on Pöttinger AEROSEM PCS. Maize grain yield (Table 1) differed significantly only in 1998 with CT and ZT treatment being lower than both MT and TT by 22 and 25%, respectively. 2 Imports of broiler meat into Ghana since 2000 9. An estimate of the per bushel cost of production is useful in making effective marketing decisions. In tropical regions such as Hawaii, Africa, and Central America, year-round maize production can result in sequential. Yield per hectare of 2-4 tons per hectare should be expected though the actual yield is a function of the seedling used and the agricultural practice carried out during the life span of the crop. 3 tonnes per hectare in 2017. These weed control treatment. In terms of productivity [yield (kg’s) per hectare], both wheat and rice have shown a sharp increase (FAO production. 46 metric tonnes per hectare in the 2017/2018 season to 1. Maize is a very important staple and most cultivated cereal in terms of volume. If you subtracted production costs – for irrigation and fertiliser - of around R25,000 per hectare per year, that is still a lot of money. The Coach can only operate the factory for a maximum of 50 hours. pruriens var. The seeds promise up to 68 bags per hectare. Maize yield was also lower than expected (1. Support The Guardian Available for everyone, funded by readers As maize has both a high yield per hectare and a high yield of biogas per tonne, it has become what. The growth rate of maize in the. The total costs of production of maize per hectare was highest for large farmer of Rs. It is common for many small-holder farmers to rent the equipment or form a cooperative to share the costs. There were also difference in yield per hectare between the provinces; KZN and Mpumalanga being located in the humid subtropical areas of South Africa had the highest yield per hectare 5. Maize yield (metric tonnes) : − 2009: 0. Data and Resources. It is not tolerant of waterlogging, especially during seedling and flowering stages, therefore irrigation must be carefully managed. " He said the. per hectare in 2017. In South Africa, groundnuts are grown in the summer. production methods and rain fed conditions, yields are well below their attainable levels - maize yields in Ghana average approximately 1. with the assistance of Tetteh Hormeku. The findings indicate the economic appropriateness of growing maize silage on farm. South Africa is currently the largest macadamia producer in the world with 19,500 hectares under cultivation, producing over 50,000 tonnes per year. Punjab is the largest maize growing. One needs to follow through all the procedures recommended. To this end, we have analyzed the bioenergy potential—in relation to yield of total fermentable glucose per hectare—of a set of forage maize commercial cultivars contrasting for ruminal cell wall digestibility across a range of processing conditions of increasing thermochemical severity. The crop can be grown in various soils and weather conditions. 03 per hectare; operating and gross ratios were 0. Per one hectare of farmland, you can yield from 2. Table 1: Indicative Maize for Grain Costs of Production for the 2018-19 season. However, the maize production sector in these countries exhibits a very low productivity and even with improved seeds; with the average yield of about 1. Crop yields are the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. Table 4 reveals that the mean total cost of production (obtained by summing all the costs involved in the dry season maize production starting with the cost of fertilizer, seeds, and labor, watering inclusive) per 1ha is N160,800 for Kano and N237. How I harvest 40 bags of maize per acre at Sh2,500 per bag but production cost per bag exceeds Sh2,000 due to the cost of running the three generators. Although yield is only a partial gauge of performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. Good companion of DE222. Modern hybrid trees produce 900 kg per hectare per year, compared with 400 kg from traditional methods, but the hybrids require more cash for spraying and fertiliser. At 38 days post-emergence, Deeside's maize gets a 600ml in 150l of water per hectare application of Amistar Top fungicide, together with yet another Decis application. This is at the current 46 bags, which is itself low production due to poor management. Potential impact of using GM maize in Ukraine. 7 metric tons per hectare. However, yields of 6 metric tons per hectare and higher have been realized by farmers using improved seeds such as Dupont Pioneer hybrid maize. If you are asking about the yield of coconuts per hectare of coconut plantation then this is possible but the answer to the question would depend on. Maize production in Nigeria is by far one of the most interesting, easy-to-start and most lucrative type of agribusiness you can ever lay your hands on. The study shows that laser land levelling saves electricity amounting to about 755 kWh per hectare per year for rice-wheat systems. It also considers labor costs. In modern agriculture one of the most vexing and economically harmful natural factors facing crop production, is weed resistance to herbicides. But on closer inspection, this gap between crop yields may not be all it seems. Per hectare of land Farm Nation Revenue ($) 20,000 10,000 Input Costs ($) 10,000 12,000 Labor and Capital ($) 5,000 5,000 Profits ($) 5,000 -7,000 Policy inconsistency 1. In fact, laser land levelling is scale neutral and not particularly biased towards large-holdings. This is obviously much lower than the potential income from growing maize. Multiply these by the number of hectares of crop planted to produce an enterprise total. , @ 50% of the cost limited to ` 500/- per hectare. 1 million metric tons of rice and over 450,000 metric tons of wheat in addition to provision of over one million direct and indirect rural jobs with the significant improvements in fish, tomatoes, shogun, cassava and maize yields. Figure 1 illustrates the average corn yield per hectare for each farm for the years data were available (between 1 to 6 years). Cost per acre and cost per bushel are shown in Figure 3 for the cash rent corn farmer. Average maize yield in much of Africa is approximately 2 metric tons per hectare, which is less than 20 percent of the yield level in more productive parts of the world. 9 tonnes/hectare. Despite substantial research into pollination mana. 7 Mt/hectare/year was the national average yield (MoFA, 2011), whereas 1. we are going to open the maize plantation about 1000 hectar with a minimum result l0 tons per ha. Maize Production, Davangere and that among the supply chains existed in two regions, per hectare cost of cultivation of maize was higher in Northern Karnataka, share of variable cost t Introduction Maize starch, an excellent source of carbohydrates, is a highly versatile industrial raw material that finds extensive application. Several production constraints have led to low yields (< 2. 10 kg is enough to plant 1 acre and 5 kg for half an acre. However, the percentage of maize emergence at higher density (40 000 plants per hectare) will be reduced due to competition of plants for moisture, nutrients and sunlight (Graph 2a and b). 72 Metric tonnes per hectare last season. Analysis of Costs and Returns on Maize Production among Small-scale Farmers in Osun State Nigeria. The other alternative is to plant 1 bean row and then 2 seeds per hole. Milling companies with their own sugar estates produce ± 7% of the crop. ” Greg Paynter, an organic farmer who works for the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, conducted the organic section of grain comparison trials at Dalby Agricultural College in 2002. This article gives an account of the 11 fundamental keys to achieve better yields. of Pakistan, 2004). 4 mln to 12. in maize? ―Yes, maize fertilized with POLY4 and POLY4:MOP resulted in greater nutrient uptake which led to more biomass production and ultimately higher grain yield. 5 tonnes/ha but after 2000 it dropped to about 0. To this end, we have analyzed the bioenergy potential—in relation to yield of total fermentable glucose per hectare—of a set of forage maize commercial cultivars contrasting for ruminal cell wall digestibility across a range of processing conditions of increasing thermochemical severity. 17 tons per hectare is 38% below the world's average. Among cereals maize, in India ranks 5th in total area, fourth in total production and third in yield per hectare. That yield growth is now less than 2 per cent, well below increases in demand. Biomass potentials (dry matter yields per hectare) for maize, triticale and cup plant have been calculated with the crop model BioSTAR. By Martin Khor. 1 per hectare. 8 metric tons per hectare respectively, 1. Cost per yield unit Cost per hectare is not necessarily the correct standard according to which a cost comparison between dry land and irrigation should be made. 50 156,312 Total Revenue - - - Labour 120 Man-days 400 48,000 Maize bowl 1,200 bowls 10 12,000. 5 metric tonnes per hectare annually. The Analysis: Estimating Maize Yields and Profitability in Nigeria The Data The Nigeria Living. “Grain traders and millers are taking advantage of the loss of confidence by farmers to GMB and offering prices that will not allow farmers to break even. 10% of the total cost for Indian and Nigerian sorghum production respectively. the ability of maize and some maize components to reduce methane production from cattle is a characteristic of the crop that may. This new BRP manual - the first to cover growing and. We sequenced 200 genomes of the chocolate plant Theobroma cacao L. A cost function analysis indicates that RR maize has 19% lower costs per maize plot, which increases to at least a 35% advantage when controlling for selectivity bias. However, per hectare (ha) yield of the country (also of the Province) is much lower than that of the maize producing countries’ average (Govt. 00), cost of FYM per hectare (Rs 9168. ” Greg Paynter, an organic farmer who works for the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, conducted the organic section of grain comparison trials at Dalby Agricultural College in 2002. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded, but are obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. 2 million cedis per hectare, it had resulted in high productivity. As a high-yield crop, maize undoubtedly became the first selected crop to develop()see table 3. versus fields with full fertilizer rate applied. This is expected to be an average across all 265,000 lowland rainfed farmers. "The crop of Ardent maize we harvested on 26th September yielded 37. Under irrigation plant no more than 45 000 to 50 000 plants per hectare. Maize can be produced in areas where the rainfall exceeds 350 mm per year. An experiment was conducted at. The costs and returns analysis indicated that maize production was profitable with an average net farm income of N48, 109. Average economic profit for the farm from Indiana was $13 per hectare ($5 per acre). The economic analysis showed that Gross Margin per hectare from sole maize crop was N13,943. Calculate fertilizer costs. 4 mln to 12. kilograms per hectare and kilograms per square meters. If the farmers able to produce 30,000 cobs an with average price of RM 0. seed was 13kg/ha, fertilizer was 4 bags/ha, while herbicide was 0. family labour for more output to be achieved. MY 2014/15 Crop Estimated Lower as Prices Discourage Additional Pickings The Post estimate for MY 2014/15 production has been revised 500,000 480 lb. Thus, land owned by small-. 9 tonnes per hectare in 2016 to 6. Which means we can calculate a “value per hectare” for each crop. The result showed that on an average irrigation cost savings stood at Taka 5,000 in per hectare of land, which is more than double of the IRRI estimated cost. Since 2001-2011, per hectare yield levels in a variety of major crops in the state have not only increased, but exceeded expectations [6]. "Maize buyers want to make huge profits at the expense of farmers, offering them prices lower than the cost of production. Cost Per Hectare Of Maize Production by state 2014 - 2016, Source: National. Answer Wiki. 1: Exemplary methane yields from digestion of various plants and. in maize production between 1964 and 1997, fueled by the introduction of high yielding hybrids. This may add up to R10/ha in chemical costs, but the improved maize yield makes it worth it. yields, total variable costs and gross margins generated per hectare of an ideal small-scale commercial farm versus the small-scale subsistence farm given the same size of land. Domestication has had a strong impact on the development of modern societies. Yield per hectare of 2-4 tons per hectare should be expected though the actual yield is a function of the seedling used and the agricultural practice carried out during the life span of the crop. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) from The World Bank: Data. The Summer Grain Scheme was established in 1979 in terms of s 14(1)(a) of the Act (see Michau v Maize Board 2003 (6) SA 459 (SCA) para 3). This critical yield would not likely be achieved and. He said although the amount involved in land preparation and other farm management in the cultivation of improved variety of maize per hectare was high at the cost of 2. Depending on the equipment the spacing may be as much as 90-100cm (3-4ft). Aggregators. It is common for many small-holder farmers to rent the equipment or form a cooperative to share the costs. Average corn yield for the farms in 2013 to 2016 was 141. Maize silage is a good cereal replacement due to high starch levels, but its protein content is low. 50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. Resources & Learning materials Here are a few interesting resources and learning materials that will give you a headstart if you're seriously considering maize farming and production business in Africa. If you subtracted production costs – for irrigation and fertiliser - of around R25,000 per hectare per year, that is still a lot of money. Nigeria - Cereal yield (kg per hectare) The value for Cereal yield (kg per hectare) in Nigeria was 1,591. CASSAVA STUDY. 200 per man-day. Maize (Zea mays), called corn in some regions of the world, is a grass of tropical origin that has become the major grain crop in the world in terms of total production, with re-cent production around 800 million tons per year. For further illustration of this fact, we compared five countries with high (Top5) agricultural productivity (expressed in yield per hectare) from Sub-Saharan Africa and the European Union for 2007. 1 Three tables (1. You can't say how many tons are in a hectare. 43 per cent for maize and 23. Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Farmers in Maize Production in Bako Tibe District, Ethiopia Kifle Degefa* 1 Moti Jaleta 2 Belaineh Legesse 3 1. Biomass potentials (dry matter yields per hectare) for maize, triticale and cup plant have been calculated with the crop model BioSTAR. 21% in rice- producing Asia). For seven hours one worker can easily gather and put in bags approximately 2. The maize value chain in Ethiopia involves multiples actors, including: input suppliers, producers, traders (local assemblers and wholesalers), retailers, processors, and consumers. ES Cluedo is a consistently high yielding variety that can be utilised on a wide variety of soil types. Maize is a valuable feed grain, because it is among the highest in net energy content and lowest in protein and fibre content. increase the cost of production by approximately $1,182/ha. During last year 11. a) Effectiveness (increasing productivity per hectare). 1 per cent this year. In South Africa, groundnuts are grown in the summer. This yield potential could be exploited by focusing on improving maize yields particularly in marginal areas. Costs and Profitability Analysis for Cabbage Production, Ventura County, 2012-13 Transplanting rates vary depending on spacing. 000 kilos of maize. From renewable fuels to high-quality feed, corn improves our lives today and holds potential for the future limited only by our imaginations. 9 tonnes per hectare in 2016 to 6. 20 per cent) and Rs 7990 (15. Summary statistics for the data are presented in Table 1. Currently, the production has increased and it is estimated that India exports around 7 lakh metric tonnes to other countries and earns an income of more than one thousand crores. Direct seeded rice with line sowing improved the rice yield by over 25 percent per hectare in Odisha. In tropical regions such as Hawaii, Africa, and Central America, year-round maize production can result in sequential. The costs are 800-900 DKK per hectare (100-120 Euros per hectare) in Danish condi-tions. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 3. 1; Farmers also experienced savings on pesticide use by $7. Thus, land owned by small-. 1 tonnes per hectare which isn't too bad anyway. 6 percent reduction in the average national yield from 1. production methods and rain fed conditions, yields are well below their attainable levels – maize yields in Ghana average approximately 1. Currently, the production has increased and it is estimated that India exports around 7 lakh metric tonnes to other countries and earns an income of more than one thousand crores. 35 tonnes per hectare in 1961 to 3. 7 million tonnes of maize from 7. 2011), although overall production volumes increased for the smallholder farmers. 2 tons of palay per hectare achieved in India, did not quite make it but what he has proven is that a rainfed rice farm that used to produce only about 50 cavans per hectare can yield four times, or 200 cavans. Crop Gross Margin Budgets for the Katherine-Daly Region 1999-00 Introduction and Some Important Notes The standardised gross margin budgets for the Katherine/Daly region are presented in this Technical Bulletin. Andrade et al [2] found that corn yield response to decreased row spacing was negatively correlated to radiation interception at pollination. 9 MT/hectare in 2004-05 to 2. April 2016. Using the Global Yield Gap Atlas , we calculated an average rainfed yield ceiling of 9. bred into maize – (DMRSR Varieties) through the effort of research institutions in Nigeria. This helped to offset the reduction in area planted, and resulted in an increase in UK provisional wheat production of 5. 63 per cent) per ha, indicating the importance of these two inputs in rabi maize production. 21% in rice- producing Asia). Furthermore, the income was N48, 109. 0 sourced on 29 October 2019 Disclaimer Our data is published as an information source only, please read our disclaimer. In the breakdown, he said the cost of land preparation including plough, harrow and ridges can cost N100,000, seeds both hybrids and others- N10,000, Agro chemicals-N26,000, Labour involving planting, thrashing and. Price shifts for inputs can change production costs in both the short and long run. Remember, I have previously argued that we should be trying to grow the most valuable things not necessarily what we import. 170,725) as compared to Tara VDC (NRs. However, per hectare (ha) yield of the country (also of the Province) is much lower than that of the maize producing countries' average (Govt. 5 MT/hectare in 2013-14. "Growing cost ($) per tonne of dry matter". The cost pattern differs due to variations in both cost per acre and yield. Surprise uniquely combines high yields of ME and digestable starch with high fibre digestibility. Most maize is used as silage for animal feed, especially for dairy cattle, but increasingly maize is being grown as an energy crop for anaerobic digesters (AD) that are subsidised from public money to produce gas for fuel. 1 Three tables (1. The extra yield of Cobs amounted to 1. 34 per 50kg bag of Maize. 3 ton per hectare. World of Corn. The breakdown of the mean cost of production per 1ha is presented on can be seen in the table 4. Despite the clear benefits of Marginal 28, Peruvian farmers are still struggling as markets shift, production costs rise, and maize prices remain low. 197,186 per hectare (Table 4). Good companion of DE222. Fertilizer was the most prominent cost item, accounting for 59% of the total cost of production. gress in the Breeding of Superior Maize varieties in Japan" was a historical account of what improvements there have been in this country in the breeding of maize vari­ eties so far and what further improvements appear possible in the future for the drastic increase in maize productivity per hectare. total factor productivity of tropical soybean-maize systems: the case of the safrinha crop system in mato grosso, brazil by krystal maria montesdeoca. Therefore, gross income was computed on the basis of maize yield per hectare according to the present market value. 1; Australia. Planting material Seed requirement for planting one hectare of maize is 20kg Time of planting. 2 million cedis per hectare, it had resulted in high productivity. Yield data was recorded and maize samples were. Maize can be produced in areas where the rainfall exceeds 350 mm per year. Generally, the taller the variety, the lower should be the plant population. Maize production is essential to Kenya’s fragile food security, but droughts in recent years have devastated harvests. 8 metric tons per hectare). "The crop of Ardent maize we harvested on 26th September yielded 37. The major success factors in cassava production is the ability of the investor to engage in commercial production using high yielding stem cuttings (minimum of ten hectares). Agricultural labor intensity, number of workers per hectare shows the labor input intensity of agricultural systems. However, yields of 6 metric tons per hectare and higher have been realized by farmers using improved seeds such as Dupont Pioneer hybrid maize. In view of the limited irrigation resources and the adequacy of rains of the south-west monsoon in normal years, the major maize area will continue to be grown during Kharif, Maize. 8% Maize yield increase (8. 44 per cent for paddy crop from the existing net returns among the. 7 metric tons per hectare. The correct comparison is to do a cost comparison per yield unit, namely cost per tonne in the case of wheat and maize and cost per bag in the case of potatoes. 3 reveal that the yield of wheat has increased by over 177 per cent between 1960-61 and 1990-91. For example, according to current Agritex crop production budgets (2019) one requires ZWL$7 362/ha to produce a hectare of white maize targeting a yield of 8 metric tonnes per ha. 18 lakh hectare), maize (4. The total average costs of labor were Tk. 73 lakh hectare), tur (1. In the United States the smallest two-hectare farms produced $15,104 per hectare and netted about $2,902 per hectare. RL (Bob) Nielsen Extension Maize Specialist & Professor of Agronomy Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana USA Email: [email protected] The report shown that total cost of production about RM 3,367 per ha (Increase about 15% from my study in 2008. 03 per hectare; operating and gross ratios were 0. The cost analysis indicated that the production cost, at an annual production of 100 tons of dried cocoa beans, was Rp 79. * (by the journal of Agriculture and development economics) Let's look at what it would cost to plant green maize on a one acre piece of land, you will need about 17,750/= here is the breakdown: 1. An experiment was conducted at. secondly, what could be the expected yield per annual per hectare for a oil palm plantation. Crop share leases can be evaluated using the contributions. Good open pollinated varieties(OPV) from trusted seed companies can also be used. As a producer you are encouraged to calculate your own costs of production for various crops. A major problem for many farmers in this area is the increase of the weed striga. However, cost is also substantially higher for these two farms. Whereas for high intensity properties, the cost of growing maize is more often going to be higher than the cost of purchasing it. As an example of differences in production systems, the average white maize yield in Zimbabwe on large-scale commercial farms averages over 4 tons per hectare, compared with around 1 ton per hectare in the small-scale commercial and subsistence sectors. 6 bushels per acre for the Brazilian farm (6. One needs to follow through all the procedures recommended. Multiply these by the number of hectares of crop planted to produce an enterprise total. Many people are interested in one thing: is it really so profitable? Can you earn a lot of money from maize farming? Keep reading to find out about the profitability of maize production in Nigeria in 2018. The growth rate of maize in the. Maize yield was also lower than expected (1. In this year, national maize yield averaged 0. They have proven how this strategy can decrease the cost per kgMS produced. 8 MJME/kgDM. This incredible crop provides infinite possibilities. Growing Maize in Nigeria Choice of Land Any well drained sandy loam or loamy soil can be used for planting maize but if in doubt, contact your nearest Extension Office or Agro-Service Center. The importance of crop production is related to harvested areas, returns per hectare (yields) and quantities produced. However, intercropping ginger with 24074 maize plants per hectare produced ginger rhizome yield of 10. In the 1990s, the smallholder maize yield was around 1. production as well as an energy crop in anaerobic digestion. First cut silage tends to be Cless expensive than subsequent cuts. Success or failure depends largely on choosing the right legume(s). Maize Cultivation and Production in Sri Lanka 11 Table 3. SeedHybrid Hybrid. 8 mln tonnes. From renewable fuels to high-quality feed, corn improves our lives today and holds potential for the future limited only by our imaginations. as a prelude to the construction of a 3-5,000 hectare. This is at the current 46 bags, which is itself low production due to poor management. Maize can be produced in areas where the rainfall exceeds 350 mm per year. Although maize is a major crop globally, it is typically not grown under modern or comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) programs aimed at minimizing economic damage and lowering environmental and health risks. current GM maize technology (based on per hectare impacts derived from 2014 data) is between $81 million and $290 million. 4 tonnes per hectare of rice bean grain. It is not tolerant of waterlogging, especially during seedling and flowering stages, therefore irrigation must be carefully managed. "Maize buyers want to make huge profits at the expense of farmers, offering them prices lower than the cost of production. It is calculated by WRI by dividing the number of agricultural workers by the number of hectares of arable and permanent cropland. Per one hectare of farmland, you can yield from 2. Per hectare of land Farm Nation Revenue ($) 20,000 10,000 Input Costs ($) 10,000 12,000 Labor and Capital ($) 5,000 5,000 Profits ($) 5,000 -7,000 Policy inconsistency 1. In terms of productivity [yield (kg’s) per hectare], both wheat and rice have shown a sharp increase (FAO production. From renewable fuels to high-quality feed, corn improves our lives today and holds potential for the future limited only by our imaginations. 50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. 26 tons to 12. 72 Metric tonnes per hectare last season. This again draws attention to the labor-intensive nature of maize farming in Benin. The total amount of land farmed by anyone involved in practical crop production work (including farm manager) Indicates if labour costs are too high (i. Several factors. 00 per extra 100 kg/ha above 2. For Ireland, maize silage is a high-energy, high-starch feed that complements grazed grass, with a production cost of about 12c per kg of dry matter, which is similar to first-cut grass silage. In this study, we used an approximate rate of 28,500 transplants per acre on 40" beds with two rows of transplants 14" apart, and transplants 12"-14" apart within rows. Most maize grain produced is used as animal feed; in less developed countries it is, however, also a staple food. • The maize plant is often 2. seed yield of a single-cross hybrid is lower than other hybrids, because the female is an inbred line. At an av­er­age yield of 2,5 tonnes per hectare (2,5 tonnes x US$610 per tonne = US$1 525), the gross mar­gin for soy­abeans is ap­prox­i­mately US$825 per ha. 6 ha field of switchgrass planted in 2002 at the University of Bologna (North Italy). Although Africa has some of the lowest maize yields in the world, it is not uncommon to expect between 2,000 to 4,000 kilograms per hectare. Maize also has fewer pest and disease problems," said a report of the UN Food and Agriculture. The average cost of chemicals used in cowpea production was N 1,872, this shows that cowpea production requires a lot of chemical for viable output. For example, per capita maize production is slowly declining because of a significant decline in yield per hectare over time. 3 and Rs 50805 respectively. Average maize yield in much of Africa is approximately 2 metric tons per hectare, which is less than 20 percent of the yield level in more productive parts of the world. Analyses of six crops grown in southern Sweden for biogas production (hemp, sugar beet, maize, triticale, grass/clover ley, winter wheat) showed varying performance regarding methane yield per hectare and energy input and costs in the production and supply of crops as biogas feedstock. • Productivity of maize (yield) has increased at a CAGR of 2. · Total cost of irrigation per hectare with 100 percent crop intensity was US$ 126 with the treadle pump, US$ 306 with a diesel pump and US$ 190 with an electric pump for maize. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: