Grpc Callback

This method should only be used in low-level callback-based code. Challenges by individual citizens. This is the first public preview of gRPC for ASP. RPyC makes use of object-proxying, a technique that employs python’s dynamic nature, to overcome the physical boundaries between processes and computers, so that remote objects can be manipulated as if they were local. But I fail to see how that would break anything that we already had installed. If there is no callback, quit the polling thread; All the callbacks attached to the grpc. gRPC is a remote procedure call framework developed by Google that has been gaining interests among many software developers that were developing microservices in recent years because its open. Processor on your server and a MyService. html file is the Thrift client as shown above. Can it be done? A. getMeter() passing in the object & callback to execute. Protobuf is a thing for serializing structured data that Google made for the impatient world (meaning it’s fast and efficient). What's in a Transport Layer? Reaching for gRPC. During my vacation between jobs, I decided to revisit one of my old projects and try to migrate it to using gRPC. gRPC using HTTP 2. Last released on Aug 5, 2019. In this video we see how Microsoft ASP. Introduction. A callback type that can be manually waited upon. Congratulations! You have written your first services using gRPC using two of the most common styles of communication: single request/response and server-side streaming. NET Core Preview 8 so this might change in the future. Guest blogger Chris Richardson is the founder of the original CloudFoundry. Then you can visualize the profile result in TensorBoard's Profile Plugin. gRPC is based on protocol buffers and as such, you will need to compile the lnd proto file in Python before you can use it to communicate with lnd. That's pretty inefficient, but fortunately there is a better way - let's create a single callback queue per client. It provides abstractions for Java, Groovy and other JVM languages to make building event and data-driven applications easier. module grpc-lite function grpc-lite. gRPC is a protocol where one program can use to request a service which is located in another program on different network. _internal_repr = {}; } example usage */ function makeUnaryRequest(argument, metadata, options, callback) { /* jshint validthis: true */ /* While the arguments are listed in the function signature, those variables * are not used directly. proto file in gRPC Basics: Node. Lagom gRPC Example (Scala) Lagom is an open source framework (built on Akka and Play) for developing reactive microservice systems in Java or Scala. The only thing that makes sense is that something changed on the Google Backend which I would have no way of knowing and no idea where to look for it. Ruby on Rails has been popularizing both concepts along with a variety of other controversial points since the beginning. This post is part of a series about WCF extensibility points. firefox,proxy,ssl-certificate,http2,nghttp2. Binary Framing Stream 1. Add a callback to be run when the Task is done. What's in a Transport Layer? Reaching for gRPC. What's next. However, you can build your own UI-Gateway that might expose some WebSocket on one end and talk with gRPC on the other. Subject: C++ Callback Objects I'm interested in using thrift from different threads asynchronously. deserialize_message` that. 0 is a long operation spanning multiple components (application, endorsing peer, orderer, committing peer) and takes a relatively lengthy period of time (think seconds instead of milliseconds) to complete. Conclusion. Its c++ api is really shitty and http2 gives lot overhead. NET Core, and a console application to test it with. gRPC异步处理应答 (金庆的专栏) gRPC的演示样例 greeter_async_client. As we don't have any time-consuming tasks that are worth distributing, we're going to create a dummy RPC service that returns Fibonacci numbers. gRPC - The bad part Proxy gRPC gRPC Channel subscribe callback 53. WCF Duplex Service. gRPC Go recently acquired support for Interceptors, i. 27K GitHub forks. When I called the next day the guy helping me was nice, but I'm assuming new because I finally had to talk to someone else just to be told that they do have the carpet but the installer wasn't allowed to pick it up due to inventory - I was never told doing inventory. Authentication refers to the process of determining a client's identity. _getCoreRepresentation (). polling = False self. Channel instance will be removed when the object is disposed by Python garbage collector because customized __del__ method which will detach all the callbacks is provided. callbacks_and_connectivities = [] self. As long as that thread is able to quickly process messages as soon as they arrive,. serializers. Because a huge number of useful, high-quality Web-related open source packages are in the form of Node Package Manager (NPM) modules. ## Testing You can call methods of your servicer and decode them using `django_grpc. It can efficiently connect services in and across data centers with pluggable support for load balancing, tracing, health checking and authentication. Docker, Kubernetes, REST, Swagger, Falcor, gRPC, CI/CD Pipeline tools, PaaS, Cloud, and so on. NET should obviously support. module grpc-lite function grpc-lite. 这篇文章我们会介绍 gRPC 的异步编程,如果读者没有使用过 gRPC 的经验,可以先阅读我之前写过的 gRPC 编程指南。 异步 Client gRPC 支持同步和异步两种编程方式。. This allows subscription-based push communication between the server and the client, where the server can push data to the client. ModelCheckpoint callback. Transaction processing in fabric v1. NOTE: The examples below are also in the grpc/samples/greeter directory. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "grpc. - Load default roots. This post is about running Javascript code in Server. The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:. By using Apollo GraphQL, gRPC, React, and TypeScript, we have a lot of flexibility when querying our data but are still able to keep our services fairly isolated from one another. we can implement gRPC in Node. 17K GitHub stars and 1. The usual pattern is that the callback is invoked as callback(err, result), where only one of err and result is non-null, depending on whether the operation succeeded or failed. gRPC API Usage Tutorial The XOS gRPC API may be used directly for operating on objects in the XOS data model as an alternative to REST or TOSCA. Although it may looks like has a lot of language support, them seem to mostly focus on go api. Protocol Buffer Basics: C++ This tutorial provides a basic C++ programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. So I don't want to repeat that. At this point, I'd almost always choose gRPC over REST for these kinds of services (at least for what I do, your use cases may vary), however there is one thing I really miss from working with REST services: running requests via curl or in Postman to test or debug APIs. I've used lots of rpc framework, but they are all pain in the ass:. Civil lawsuit based upon an alleged detrimental effect on an individual’s property. The only thing that makes sense is that something changed on the Google Backend which I would have no way of knowing and no idea where to look for it. A gRPC RPC comprises of a bidirectional stream of messages, initiated by the client. GrpcServer is a wrapper class of grpc. mingw-w64-i686-grpc gRPC - Google's high performance, open source, general RPC framework (mingw-w64). NET Core and it doesn't implement all of gRPC's features, but we're working hard to make the best gRPC experience for ASP. C++ takes a slightly different route for callbacks, which is. CallCredentials using the metadata plugin. Instead, you must use the StreamObserver callback interface to send the data back. WCF Duplex Service. If the states are already different, the callback will be called immediately. ModelCheckpoint at the tf. ts codes according to js codes generated by grpc_tools_node_protoc. Status ~Condor is working, but it’s in ALPHA stage. correlation_id: Useful to correlate RPC responses with requests. But I fail to see how that would break anything that we already had installed. Level 1: Object references and promise pipelining, as described above. Then, call the method on the server by simply calling client. Additionally, by achieving end-to-end type coverage, it is very difficult to accidentally misuse data or introduce a breaking change. NGINX Plus R15 introduces new gRPC support, HTTP/2 server push, improved clustering support, enhanced API gateway functionality, and more: Native gRPC support – gRPC is the new remote procedure call (RPC) standard developed by Google. Back-pressure in Grpc-akkastream Posted by Damien January 30, 2018 January 30, 2018 Leave a comment on Back-pressure in Grpc-akkastream Grpc-akkastream , the akka-stream implementation built on top of GRPC looks good on the surface but if you look under the hood there is one problem: it doesn’t provide any support for back-pressure. It enables client and server applications to communicate transparently, and makes it easier to build connected systems. Let’s take a look at how gRPC Streaming compares to WCF Duplex Services, and how to migrate to one from the other. Has someone any idea on how to proceed ? GRPC for csharp v 0. NOTE: The examples below are also in the grpc/samples/greeter directory. At this point, I'd almost always choose gRPC over REST for these kinds of services (at least for what I do, your use cases may vary), however there is one thing I really miss from working with REST services: running requests via curl or in Postman to test or debug APIs. In order to use and control such functionality, the platform pre-defines a special set of request parameters called system parameters. * New GrpcStream class that has the notion of a completion queue in a separate thread along with GrpcTags to read/write and connect to Grpc Streams. gRPC shares some similarities with earlier systems such as Apache Thrift. This is the speech Siddon Tang gave at Bay Area Rust Meetup August 2017. At Google, Sandeep's goal is to make cloud easy and help developers create the next big thing. Civil lawsuit based upon an alleged detrimental effect on an individual’s property. It's a lightweight and efficient way for clients and servers to communicate. NGINX Plus R15 introduces new gRPC support, HTTP/2 server push, improved clustering support, enhanced API gateway functionality, and more: Native gRPC support - gRPC is the new remote procedure call (RPC) standard developed by Google. In a typical Thrift RPC system you'd create a MyService. Additional Information¶ Inspecting the generated Javascript code and HTML code¶ Inside the html file is the entry point of using the Thrift. Additional Information¶ Inspecting the generated Javascript code and HTML code¶ Inside the html file is the entry point of using the Thrift. This is the main configuration file that contains configuration properties for transports (HTTP, MQTT, CoAP), database (Cassandra), clustering (Zookeeper and gRPC), etc. Metadata description and source code function Metadata() { this. Then deploy this to server or Kubernetes cluster and have other client micro-services calling it. grpc-code-generator A code generator for gRPC/protobuf. If there is no callback, quit the polling thread; All the callbacks attached to the grpc. GrpcServer. Each tutorial in this section shows you how to implement a simple application using protocol buffers in your favourite language, introducing you to the language's protocol buffer API as well as showing you the basics of creating and using. This way the client gets an option to make a blocking call or a non-blocking call. NET Core, and a console application to test it with. The ecosystem around microservices has already matured quite a bit, and its improving all the time. In the method presented above we suggest creating a callback queue for every RPC request. There are a number of great walkthroughs for moving your ASP. NET Core Preview 8 so this might change in the future. Hyperledger Fabric makes use of protocol buffers and gRPC. Google Tensorflow Serving library helps here, to save your model to disk, and then load and serve a GRPC or RESTful interface to interact with it. gRPC is a remote procedure call framework developed by Google that has been gaining interests among many software developers that were developing microservices in recent years because its open. js and compiled Javascript files. Latest gRPC implementation separates the loop in several parts to hook callbacks. B William A. It is used for This program allows you to identify and delete all work items containing an invalid objectsee full standard documentation available for this report. I've used lots of rpc framework, but they are all pain in the ass:. What's in a Transport Layer? Reaching for gRPC. Repository: camel Updated Branches: refs/heads/master 1b164db2f -> 6ced62131 CAMEL-11288: camel-grpc. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. It supports both sync and async communication model. This method should only be used in low-level callback-based code. _internal_repr = {}; } example usage */ function makeUnaryRequest(argument, metadata, options, callback) { /* jshint validthis: true */ /* While the arguments are listed in the function signature, those variables * are not used directly. relocation of GRPC A. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. gRPC is based on protocol buffers and as such, you will need to compile the lnd proto file in Python before you can use it to communicate with lnd. The async client registers an observer/callback that will handle the streamed messages as they arrive without blocking the current thread. The client side. An article, see attached, will appear in the Club newspaper, The Muzzleblast, in the next published issue. The Cap'n Proto C++ RPC layer sits on top of the serialization layer and implements the RPC protocol. NGINX Plus R15 introduces new gRPC support, HTTP/2 server push, improved clustering support, enhanced API gateway functionality, and more: Native gRPC support – gRPC is the new remote procedure call (RPC) standard developed by Google. Although it may looks like has a lot of language support, them seem to mostly focus on go api. B William A. Akka gRPC is a toolkit for building streaming gRPC servers and clients on top of Akka Streams. Additionally, by achieving end-to-end type coverage, it is very difficult to accidentally misuse data or introduce a breaking change. NET application using Microsoft ASP. 0 beta release, which no current OS distro currently has, and build gRPC from source. serializers. A code generator for gRPC/protobuf. 0 - destroy grpc_byte_buffer after. In this tutorial we're going to use RabbitMQ to build an RPC system: a client and a scalable RPC server. Callback: can be a function name, an array containing the object and the method name, or a closure that will receive the queued message. It looks like it would involve implementing clientInterceptor calls for the grpc-node library in the node-grpc-client library, which is downstream of node-grpc and upstream of zeebe-node. Whole file needs to be uploaded before processing can start. Guest blogger Chris Richardson is the founder of the original CloudFoundry. Then, call the method on the server by simply calling client. Methods are provided to check if the computation is complete, to wait for its completion, and to retrieve the result of the computation. The club is located in an area of Jacksonville which has become more populated with private individual dwellings. It is used for This program allows you to identify and delete all work items containing an invalid objectsee full standard documentation available for this report. NOTE: The examples below are also in the grpc/samples/greeter directory. serialize_model`. - TokenOS redirects to the callback URL hosted by your back-end service: 3. There is an easy way to serialize django model to gRPC message using `django_grpc. This guide explains how to set up authentication and authorization for server to server production applications. 1384 lines. Google's API platform provides a set of common functionality to all Google APIs built using the platform. In this tutorial we're going to use RabbitMQ to build an RPC system: a client and a scalable RPC server. Object Description; Headers: Provides actions to read/write header values in gRPC request/response message. I've used lots of rpc framework, but they are all pain in the ass:. mingw-w64-i686-grpc gRPC - Google's high performance, open source, general RPC framework (mingw-w64). To take advantage of fault tolerance in multi-worker training, provide an instance of tf. But before we start, if you don't know what is gRPC, I strongly recommend you to check this Jesus's post about the challenges of our API architecture and gRPC concepts and also read this another post from Daniel explaining the idea of gRPC with Angular. Get Started. , which is a response observer, a call back for the server to call with its response. Right now I've put together an architecture that involves using the standard cpp compiler. Unsurprisingly, grpc is among the last of them. By using Apollo GraphQL, gRPC, React, and TypeScript, we have a lot of flexibility when querying our data but are still able to keep our services fairly isolated from one another. Our blog highlights what's new in engineering at Revinate! Securing Java gRPC services with Spring Security by Alex Leigh on Nov 7, 2017. Nothing more. A webhook delivers data to other applications as it happens, meaning you get data immediately. gRPC - The bad part We change service, then we need to rebuild in both client We have lots of end points, how to maintain? That it is, we must be smart. The accuracy and frequency of the updates are affected by the location permissions you've. html file is the Thrift client as shown above. description and source-code _getCoreRepresentation = function { return. NET application using Microsoft ASP. js does not have any of these exposed to. This guide explains how to set up authentication and authorization for server to server production applications. Launched in February 2003 (as Linux For You), the magazine aims to help techies avail the benefits of open source software and solutions. 27K GitHub forks. This is an efficient binary protocol for making network calls, and so is something that CSLA. A Future represents the result of an asynchronous computation. Google Tensorflow Serving library helps here, to save your model to disk, and then load and serve a GRPC or RESTful interface to interact with it. Its c++ api is really shitty and http2 gives lot overhead. Civil lawsuit based upon an alleged detrimental effect on an individual's property. Patrick McManus answered almost exactly this in the Firefox bugzilla a while ago - and the reason for this is that there is still a lack of UI for this in Firefox: You can do a TOFU exception for the proxy case, but you have to do it a little. Thrift also has some asio backends, you may want to have a look. The callback method takes an IAsyncResult parameter, which is subsequently used to obtain the results of the asynchronous operation. getMeter() passing in the object & callback to execute. As of version 0. Can it be done? A. GrpcServer. Then, call the method on the server by simply calling client. Options: Optional: options for @grpc/proto-loader to load. NET documentation. If timeout was declared during the client initialization and the watch cannot be created during that time the method raises a WatchTimedOut exception. module grpc-lite function grpc-lite. In order to use and control such functionality, the platform pre-defines a special set of request parameters called system parameters. Channel instance will be removed when the object is disposed by Python garbage collector because customized __del__ method which will detach all the callbacks is provided. The main section code from the tutorial. Contains templates for generating Typescript definitions for the plain callback/streams based API for grpc-node and protobuf message types. grpc / test / cpp / end2end / client_callback_end2end_test. Function pointers are among the most powerful tools in C, but are a bit of a pain during the initial stages of learning. Essentially, a WebHook is a glorified system of "if this, then do", allowing for users independent of the event firing to craft a custom response to that event within their own system. gRPC is a protocol where one program can use to request a service which is located in another program on different network. The callback will store the checkpoint and training state in the directory corresponding to the filepath argument to ModelCheckpoint. _getCoreRepresentation (). Then, call the method on the server by simply calling client. Methods are provided to check if the computation is complete, to wait for its completion, and to retrieve the result of the computation. There is a Quick Start for each gRPC supported language with accompanying sample code for a simple Hello World example for you to explore and update. That's pretty inefficient, but fortunately there is a better way - let's create a single callback queue per client. He is passionate about building easy-to-use products people love. As we don't have any time-consuming tasks that are worth distributing, we're going to create a dummy RPC service that returns Fibonacci numbers. there are a few authentication options supported by gRPC. This is a brief example showing how wait_callback can be used to synchronously get the result of invoking an async proxy method. OK, I Understand. Grpc service discovery and health check with Consul consul Service Discovery and Load Balancing When server side is cluster deployment, service discovery and load balancing are needed when client calls server. This post is about running Javascript code in Server. We look forward to receiving your check. They are extracted from open source Python projects. 2015 (November 26, 2015) 26. New to gRPC? Start with the official What is gRPC? guide. The club is located in an area of Jacksonville which has become more populated with private individual dwellings. Status ~Condor is working, but it’s in ALPHA stage. json so went there and according to some advice I have read previously, I copied the flows. Hyperledger Fabric makes use of protocol buffers and gRPC. cert we need to let gprc know that // we need to use that cipher suite otherwise there will be a handhsake. These parameters are available across all Google REST APIs and gRPC APIs. We see also how an ASP. js上で、gRPCのサーバとクライアントを動かしてみます。 また、gRPCのコード生成の際に、TypeScriptの型情報も出力し、静的な型付けも可能にします。 コード全体はこちらにあります。 TypeScriptのインストール まずは. Object Description; Headers: Provides actions to read/write header values in gRPC request/response message. It is probable that some surrounding landowners could hear and complain. This method should only be used in low-level callback-based code. gRPC is a remote procedure call framework developed by Google that has been gaining interests among many software developers that were developing microservices in recent years because its open. That's pretty inefficient, but fortunately there is a better way - let's create a single callback queue per client. This method expects a message and a value determines whether to delete the callback after invocation. This tutorial will guide you through the creation of a custom authentication plugin for Tyk with a gRPC based plugin written in NodeJS. Its c++ api is really shitty and http2 gives lot overhead. Running a gRPC service GrpcServiceBuilder. Abstract gRPC protocol. This callback has to accept a parameter, containing such a. The wait() member function can be used to wait until the callback has been called. As long as that thread is able to quickly process messages as soon as they arrive,. If you want me to do more of those (once a month), please let me know in the comments!. You should expect RPCs that were in-progress when the disconnect occurred to fail, but any new RPCs should automatically use a new connection. module grpc-lite function grpc-lite. Transaction processing in fabric v1. Attendees; CalendarContract. There is an easy way to serialize django model to gRPC message using `django_grpc. Setup and Installation. Last released on Aug 5, 2019 A library for exploring and validating machine learning data. You give it a handler instance for each service end point, an executor, and a port to bind to. Every time you work with Javascript gRPC, you will have to import grpc, load rpc. asyncio is used as a foundation for multiple Python asynchronous frameworks that provide high-performance network and web-servers, database connection libraries, distributed task queues, etc. correlation_id: Useful to correlate RPC responses with requests. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Options: Optional: options for @grpc/proto-loader to load. Default is null: routes { [methodName]:(call, callback) => void | (call) => Promise } Required: routing map consists of a set of pair of method name and handler. reply_to: Commonly used to name a callback queue. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. Last week I introduced the channel model in WCF, with an emphasis on the channels at the client side. NET AJAX helps web developers make network callbacks directly from client-side script code. tensorflow::serving::UntypedServableHandle A non-templatized handle to a servable, used internally in the Manager to retrieve a type-erased servable object from the Loader. If found, it will invoke it using the DynamicInvoke. HTTP/2 is quite featureful and provides most of the advanced needs that gRPC has; HTTP/2 is pretty similar to what we would make ourselves if gRPC used TCP directly. Get Started. You won’t find true WebHook specifications or libraries; it’s up to you to implement it the way you like. In the modern era, software is commonly delivered as a service: called web apps, or software-as-a-service. For example, you need the latest Protobuf 3. So for this I'm going to just copy this, and I'll create a demo called producer with callback, and so this is the exact same code that we had from before, but this time, I'm going to add something. Last released on Aug 5, 2019 A library for exploring and validating machine learning data. The callback will store the checkpoint and training state in the directory corresponding to the filepath argument to ModelCheckpoint. A gRPC RPC comprises of a bidirectional stream of messages, initiated by the client. ts codes according to js codes generated by grpc_tools_node_protoc. By using Apollo GraphQL, gRPC, React, and TypeScript, we have a lot of flexibility when querying our data but are still able to keep our services fairly isolated from one another. If the gen_server process needs to perform an action immediately after initialization or to break the execution of a callback into multiple steps, it can return {continue,Continue} in place of the time-out or hibernation value, which will immediately invoke the handle_continue/2 callback. Level 1: Object references and promise pipelining, as described above. Depending on the form of the request, the fused location provider either invokes the LocationCallback. We will illustrate usage with the following schema:. Added callables are called in the order that they were added and are always called in a thread belonging to the process that added them. Lnd uses the gRPC protocol for communication with clients like lncli. This section enumerates what you need to do to write a client that communicates with lnd in Python. metadata_plugin = AuthMetadataPlugin (credentials, request) # Create a set of grpc. module grpc-lite function grpc-lite. Mostly used just to bootstrap a MockReaderWriterT, this also features deferred execution to mimic gRPC. Browser Support. Luckily for Node. Depending on the form of the request, the fused location provider either invokes the LocationCallback. gRPC with 22K GitHub stars and 5. Add a callback to be run when the Task is done. js上で、gRPCのサーバとクライアントを動かしてみます。 また、gRPCのコード生成の際に、TypeScriptの型情報も出力し、静的な型付けも可能にします。 コード全体はこちらにあります。 TypeScriptのインストール まずは. The async client registers an observer/callback that will handle the streamed messages as they arrive without blocking the current thread. The server-to-client direction contains an optional Initial-Metadata,. April 12, 2015 devicharan Leave a comment Go to comments GRPC is "A high performance, open source, general RPC framework that puts mobile and HTTP/2 first" , i was pretty impressed with its architecture after going thorough the announcement on feb 26th 2015. Microservices based webapplication in golang using grpc. js Client as of 1. 1384 lines. Performance is critical for machine learning. The libraries in this repository provide a concrete implementation of the gRPC protocol, layered over HTTP/2. InitWallet Simple RPC. CallCredentials using the metadata plugin. This allows me. Docker, Kubernetes, REST, Swagger, Falcor, gRPC, CI/CD Pipeline tools, PaaS, Cloud, and so on. It was released on July 02, 2019 - about 1 month ago. Contribute to jinq0123/grpc_cb development by creating an account on GitHub. April 12, 2015 devicharan Leave a comment Go to comments GRPC is "A high performance, open source, general RPC framework that puts mobile and HTTP/2 first" , i was pretty impressed with its architecture after going thorough the announcement on feb 26th 2015. The easiest way to ensure that your browser supports WebSockets is to use a JavaScript library called Modernizr which allows you to verify support for several emerging browser features (see the “ Bullet Proof your Web Apps with Modernizr ” sidebar for more information). They are extracted from open source Python projects. You may want to Dockerize it as a micro-service, implementing a custom GRPC (or REST- or not) interface. This is the main configuration file that contains configuration properties for transports (HTTP, MQTT, CoAP), database (Cassandra), clustering (Zookeeper and gRPC), etc. Can it be done? A. Some gRPC methods return a stream. The DynamicInvoke helps us to invoke the callback with the right response message type using polymorphism. Then they all issue recv_'s in the same order. According to the StackShare community, gRPC has a broader approval, being mentioned in 53 company stacks & 48 developers stacks; compared to Finagle, which is. js Cloudnweb Web Development/Cloud Tutorials,How-to's and News. reply_to: Commonly used to name a callback queue. Thrift also has some asio backends, you may want to have a look. Although it may looks like has a lot of language support, them seem to mostly focus on go api. That is, authentication identifies who. This allows subscription-based push communication between the server and the client, where the server can push data to the client. You can use the dynamic stream method for this. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: